Electricity system of Finland

The power system of Finland consists of power plants, the main grid, high-voltage distribution networks, other distribution networks, and electricity consumers. Finland is part of the Nordic synchronous area along with Sweden, Norway and eastern Denmark. Finland is also connected to Estonia by HVDC transmission links.

The joint Nordic system is also connected to the Central European system by HVDC transmission links. Fingrid participates in ENTSO-E, the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.  

Main grid

Fingrid is responsible for the functionality and maintenance of Finland’s main grid. The main grid is the high-voltage meshed backbone network to which major power plants, factories and distribution networks are connected. Finland’s main grid includes approx. 14,500 km of transmission lines and over 120 substations (2023):

  • 5,400 km of 400 kV transmission lines (kV = kilovolt = 1,000 volts)
  • 1,000 km of 220 kV transmission lines
  • 7,600 km of 110 kV transmission lines
  • 320 km of HVDC cables (owned and managed jointly with a counterparty)
  • Over 120 substations


The main grid serves electricity producers and consumers by enabling them to trade nationally and internationally. The majority of electricity consumed in Finland is transmitted via the main grid.

Fingrid is responsible for grid monitoring, operational planning, balance services, grid maintenance, construction and development, and promoting the electricity market.

Distribution networks

Distribution networks typically connect to Fingrid’s main grid via the 110 kV network and transmit electricity regionally on 110 kV lines. Distribution networks operate radially at voltage levels from 0.4 kV to 110 kV. Households are connected to distribution networks, while industry, commerce, services and other demand facilities (such as agriculture) connect either to the main grid or distribution networks, depending on the case. More information about Finland’s electricity distribution and transmission is available here.

Responsibility for the power system

As the transmission system operator with system responsibility, Fingrid is responsible for the technical functionality and system security of the power system of Finland. Fingrid handles national balance responsibility tasks and national imbalance settlement in an appropriate, fair and non-discriminatory way towards all electricity market parties (system responsibility).

As part of its system responsibility, Fingrid is responsible for constantly maintaining the momentary balance between electricity production and consumption in its area of responsibility (national balance responsibility) and settling the electricity balance in its area of responsibility and the electricity balances of balance responsible parties in its area of responsibility (national imbalance settlement).