Real-time CO2 emissions estimate

 

The calculation of the real-time CO2 emissions estimate of the Finnish electricity system is based on real-time production and import/export data from Fingrid’s operation control system as well as specified emission coefficients.

The emission coefficients used for domestic electricity production are average emissions per form of production, which have been determined together with Statistics Finland and Finnish Energy. The forms of production used in the calculation are hydroelectric, nuclear, wind and solar power, combined heat and power (district heating and industry), and other production and power reserves. A separate CO2 emission coefficient has been specified for each form of production and for the import of electricity. These are used to estimate the CO2 emissions from both Finnish electricity production and the production of electricity consumed in Finland. The calculation does not take into account the greenhouse gases and other environmental impacts associated with the life cycle of production plants and infrastructure. In addition, EU emissions trading or guarantees of origin have not been taken into account in the calculation.

Hydroelectric, nuclear, wind and solar power, as well as biomass, are defined as emission-free in the calculation. The emission coefficients used to estimate the emissions of combined heat and power have been estimated from the electricity and heat production statistics of Statistics Finland. Emissions from separate production at combined heat and power plants have been included in the emission coefficients of combined heat and power in relation to the volumes of energy of the forms of production. Table 1 presents the emission coefficients per form of production used in the calculation.

The emission coefficients for the import of electricity have been defined on a country-specific basis, and they are standard coefficients based on historical production that are updated once a year. The coefficients are based on the emission coefficients reported by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The IEA has defined country-specific emission coefficients for Sweden, Norway, Russia and Estonia. Only the emission coefficient of the electricity production of the import country is taken into account in the import of electricity. In the definition, import increases the emissions associated with the electricity consumed in Finland. Both Finnish electricity production and electricity imported to Finland from neighbouring countries are taken into account when calculating the emissions related to the export of electricity. In the definition, export reduces the emissions associated with the electricity consumed in Finland.

The emissions from Finnish electricity production are obtained by adding up the product of the coefficient and production volume of each form of production and dividing this sum by the total electricity production in Finland (Formula I). The emissions from the electricity consumed in Finland are calculated by taking into account Finnish electricity production, the import of electricity into Finland and the export of electricity from Finland to other countries (Formula II).

The estimate of the real-time CO2 emissions of Finland’s electricity presented on the page is not an official calculation method for monitoring the emissions from electricity production. CO2emissions from electricity production are part of EU emissions trading. More detailed statistics on the volume of greenhouse gases in Finland are published by, among others, Statistics Finland and the Energy Authority. There are several different ways to calculate real-time emissions. Fingrid’s calculation method is not necessarily the only correct one.  We welcome development ideas to improve Fingrid’s CO2 estimate. All production data used in the calculation is available through Fingrid’s Open Data service.

Table 1.

Emission coefficients

Forms of production

[g/kWh]

Source

Hydroelectric power

0

Statistics Finland. Energy 2018 table service.

Nuclear power

0

Wind power production

0

Solar power

0

District heating CHP*

330

Industrial CHP*

170

Other production

100

Power reserve

877

* Calculated using the electricity production statistics of Statistics Finland

Formula I. Emission coefficient of Finnish electricity production

Coming soon


Formula II. Emission coefficient of the electricity consumed in Finland

Coming soon